1

Transgender

The concept of gender had been constructed by the society and “reconstructed through reform movements, moral codes, normative values, education and literature to meet certain social requisites of the times” throughout time (Bal, 2006). Consequently, concept of gender is no longer between the basic distinction of male and female as the concept of gender binary been contested through the occurrence of people changing their sex.

“I am a transgender/transsexual person meaning I was born in the wrong body and it is not mental illness like some people may think. In my case, I was born male and lived 22 years of my life as one but then made a transition to become who I really am, a female.”

Autumn Asphodel (2013)

Autumn Asphodel is a Youtuber who is actively shares her stories on the site as she began her process of transitioning from male to female. She talks about how being a male, she avoided looking at the mirror or take pictures because she hated the way she looked. Despite getting compliments for her handsome features as a man, it made her hate herself even more. In fact, every night before she goes to bed, she would pray that when she wakes up in the morning, she will be a girl. This is the classic example of a transgender. Transgender people always claimed that their outer appearance does not reflect the internal sense of femininity or masculinity they are feeling. Some might not understand the struggle these transgender people experienced in regards to their gender identification because it is something foreign to them but to the transgender community, the struggle is real. Imagine being born as girl but then one day you wake up as a man. You cannot wear your favorite dresses anymore or put any make-up on your face with hairs growing all over your body and you had to deal with this for the rest of your life. It must be agonizing to look into the mirror and see the person that you are not.

It is true that we are born with the sense of identity and sexual characteristics of either male or female. The problem is, sometimes, the sense of identity does not always match the equipment we are given. According to National Centre for Transgender Equality (2009) there are people who are aware that they are transgender from their earliest memories. In the case of Miss Asphodel, she began identifying herself as a female at the early phase of her childhood. She would watch movies about cross-dressing men and realize that is what she wanted to do. The feeling became stronger during her teenage year especially after puberty hits. She described her puberty as “an awful experience” and that “my body was changing not the way I wanted to and I hated myself for that”. Based on her statements, we can see how much she hated being identified as a man. However, after her gender reassignment surgery, instead of seeing herself as a complete woman, she claimed to be a hybrid of sorts (Asphodel, 2013). Now, a hybrid in this context is not like the vampire-slash-werewolf-kinda-hybrid but according to Miss Asphodel, she identifies herself as “60% female, 40% male”. This is because, despite the reassignment surgery, she still sees a man as part of her identity.

According Banens (2009) self-identification is a conscious act and that it came from the inside. Meanwhile, according to Fearon (1999) “identity” is used in two linked senses which may be termed as “social” and “personal”. It refers at the same time to social categories and to the sources of an individual’s self-respect or dignity (p.2). However, there is no linkage between these two things. One can use “identity” to refer to personal characteristics that cannot naturally be expressed in terms of social category and in some contexts certain categories can be described as “identities” even though no one sees them as central to their personal identity. Based on these definitions it is clear that Miss Asphodel belongs in the “personal identity” group. She identifies herself as a woman despite not being able to express that characteristic physically.

On the other hand, identity according to Foucault is a way to manifest an individual’s unique characteristics through their lifestyle. Foucault stated that identity is constructed through practices and these practices are called “technologies of self” (Kelly, 2013).  He described “technologies of self” as ways individuals act upon themselves to produce particular modes of identity and sexuality. These technologies include self-contemplation, self-disclosure and self-discipline. This can be seen clearly on Miss Asphodel. She identifies herself as a woman in the early age and the feeling gets stronger as she grew up to the point that she could not hide her true self anymore. So she came out to her family, starting to see a therapist and began her hormones treatment to become a woman. She also began dressing like a woman full-time and in the end undergone the sex reassignment surgery. According to Miss Asphodel, her journey to become a woman was painful and scary but she is finally able to be her true self and starting to love herself.

Discussion about transgender identity can be seen from many perspectives such as religion (Bal, 2006) or feminism (Przybylowicz, Hartsock & McCallum, 1990). We choose to see this issue from the perspective of globalization as one of the contemporary theorist, Giddens (cited in Hermannsdóttir, 2011:14) believes that there is “ever increasing amount of mediated experience, since with the increasing globalization of media a diverse number of milieu are made visible to anyone who cares to gather the relevant information”. There are no longer boundaries in between curiosity and information. The process of gathering information is easier than ever. Through available blogs and websites, issues on Transgender is spreading and it provides the platform for the Transgender to come out of the closet with their new identity and to be more comfortable talking about it and some has gradually gain virtual society acceptance as they understand more on the life of the Transgender.



There has been growing number of attempt to create awareness and to approach the public as to educate them regarding Transgender. One of the ways to approach bigger audience is through websites. We have decided to compare and contrast the official Transgender Community Center websites and individual Transgender blog on how they approach their crowd as well as how they deal with them.

1. LGBT Community Center of Greater Cleveland (http://www.lgbtcleveland.org/)

LGBT community center

Not-for-profit social service agency; The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center of Greater Cleveland focus on the needs of the stated group and also HIV/AIDS populations of  Northeastern Ohio. Apart from their physical center, they run down their official website to inform and share updates on related events, programs, services and reports or readings on the research done for those who are interested. Along with that, the public or anyone who are concern could also donate through an allocated section.

One special section provided in the website was “Research & Requests” where the center fulfills the request of many to publicize various research opportunities to their guests. Apart from that, the center work together with various organizations who are interested to approach the LGBT community and providing the platform to express themselves.

Besides that, counseling sessions (discussion groups) are also available to provide mental and health counseling services to cater youth and adults, aged 14-24. This blog also includes free health and wellness (HIV test). The Centre has a full schedule of regular weekly and monthly events, ranging from Martial Arts Classes, Youth Groups, Health Clinics, senior drop-in Lunches and volunteer nights, to book forums and a Gay Dads discussion group.

There were no comment section or Q&A section allocated in their official website but they have provided their contact information; address, phone number and email address of the center. Not just focusing on their official website, the community center also approach wider crowd through social networks sites namely Facebook and Twitter. Through the social media, people are free to comment, provide suggestions, and share their reviews or opinion on how the website approach could be improved.

2. National Center for Transgender Equality (http://transequality.org)

The National Center for Transgender Equality (NCTE) aims to provide information and relevant resources to assist advocates, policy members and members of the media to create culture change and attempt to increase acceptance and to improve the lives of the Transgender. However, the center should not be confused as legal or social service energy as they are not entitled to provide legal, medical or social services referrals.

This website has almost the same features as the previous website who also gives opportunity for people to donate to their center. As compared to the first website, this one is more interactive with its virtual audience as they provide space for the Transgender individual to share their story and experiences on discrimination. Apart from giving platform for them to express themselves, the story will be able to assist the website to advocate with policymakers in alteration of laws and policies in their attempt to fight for equality provided that the website gain permission to share the story without exposing his or her personal details.

There is also a blog section on the website to discuss related issue and comment section is enabled to receive feedbacks from the readers. As we scroll down the comment section, we noticed some comments have been deleted as the website will leave a mark stating “This comment has been deleted”. This shows that although the website allows people to comment, they have someone in charge of monitoring the activities at the comment section and to ‘clean’ any possibly offensive remarks to maintain a positive environments for the blog. Other commentators are allowed to interact with each other and create their chain of discussion but there are no replies or interaction from the website itself. There are also some restrictions to comment as one is required to log in using either their Facebook, Twiter or Gmail account (or sign up for one If they have none) before being able to submit their comments.

Through both official website, we have noticed that they use their social network platform to inform and spread information instead of direct interaction with their audience through comments but they are more comfortable to use email as their main medium to respond to any inquiry perhaps this is due to the formality of email.


As for the individual blogs, we have decided to go for:

1. Neutrois Nonsense (http://neutrois.me/)

This blog is run down by Micah, who have became a vocal transgender advocate and educator within the transgender community over his three years of active blogging on his transition. In his blog, he shared his journey through his transition, his experiences with embracing his new identity as well as how he copes with people. Through his blog post, he has been sharing and educating people on what is non-binary gender (all gender other than male or female) or which he coined as Neutrois.

Apart from his own experiences, he also sparred a section for relevant readings resources on gender, transition, the transgender youth and guides for those who are interested to understand more on Transgender. Apart from the comment section and email, he has created a FAQ section specially for any enquiries as he teased the readers.

comments on neutrois*please click on the image for a clearer view

The obvious difference between the official community center website with individual blog is direct interaction with the audience probably because blog is more personal and less corporate-like. Although he has his own section to ask questions, he still gives advices and recommendation to those in need in his comments section. Most of the comments are from those who are going through transition, trying to fit in their new identity and using his post as a guideline, inspiration (to embrace their differences) and moral support, relieved that they can finally found someone whom they can relate to and learn more on adaptation and process through the blog. There are also some who are heterosexual following his blog showing their support to equality. Throughout our survey in the comments section, we could not find any negative comments. Unlikethe official website’s comment features which inform the audience that the comment has been deleted, blog does not leave any traces of deleted comments. Overall, the comment section is all filled with story, gratitude, experiences, inquiry and also positive encouragements for those going through the process.

2. Transgender Mental Health (http://tgmentalhealth.com/about/)

The Transgender Mental Health Blog is run by New York City Psychotherapist and Psychoanalsyt Ami B. Kaplan uses her experience on working with Transgender and Transsexual individual to mainly discuss on Mental Health Issues for Gender Variant and Transgender Individuals, Friends and Family mainly from the aspect of mental health, psychotherapy and support. Her interest is on helping individuals to find comfort with their transition and help those having problem growing up with gender variance to cope with it. Different from the previous blog, this blog does not focus on transgenderism issues (medical breakthroughs, transgender rights, political issues) unless related to mental health. On top of that, she helps to clarify some gender and clinical terms in a simpler way for the readers understand easier.

In terms of interaction with audience, Kaplan prefers to be contacted through email and updates her Facebook. She responds to the comments and even helps those who are interested to do research on it by providing links to reliable sources and readings. Kaplan even reminded the audience that comments are monitored and spams will be removed.



Throughout the examples of websites and blogs given, we could sum up that although they do allow participation from their audience, they still maintain their power on which information they would share and what they should filter before publishing it online. Participation through comments are also monitored and filtered from the blogs and some websites does not even provide comment section but they all have one thing in common, which is using email as their main medium of interaction with their audience.

This could be explained through the concept of gatekeeping which explains how billions of messages are filtered into hundreds of messages before sent or reaching a particular person (Soroka, n.d.). This process depends on the social system of gatekeeper who decides what should be cut out and what should be forwarded to the last resort. Another important part of gatekeeping is that the process is controlled and ensured by the gatekeeper to not be known by the publics and even control who could be part of it and single out those who are not relevant (Soroka, n.d.).

REFERENCES

Asphodel, A. (2013, July 23). My transition from male to female (with pictures). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHsK_K-IZQI

Bal, G. (2006). Construction of Gender and Religious Identities in the First Punjabi Novel “Sundari”. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(32), pp. 3528-3534. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4418570

Banens, M. (2009, Mac 23). Sexual identities, what are they made of? Retrieved from http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00369324

Fearon, J. (1999). What is identity (As we now use the word)?. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/group/fearon-research/cgi-bin/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/What-is-Identity-as-we-now-use-the-word-.pdf

Kelly, M.G.E. (2013). Foucault, subjectivity, and technologies of the self. In C. Falzon, T. O’Leary and J. Sawicki (Eds.),  A companion to Foucaulti. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/4267297/Foucault_Subjectivity_and_Technologies_of_the_Self

Micah. (2014). Things I’ve learn from being a transgender that aren’t about being transgender.     Retrieved from http://neutrois.me/2014/09/08/things-ive-learned-from-being-transgender/

National Center for Transgender Equality. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://transequality.org

National Centre for Transgender Equality (2009). Understanding transgender people FAQ. Retrieved from http://www.transequality.org/issues/resources/understanding-transgender-people-faq

Soroka, S. N. (n.d.). The Gatekeeping Function: Distributions of Information in Media and The Real World. McGill University.

The Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Community Center of Greater Cleveland. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.lgbtcleveland.org/

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What’s the fuss with texting while driving?

30 years ago, a cellphone was too expensive to be owned by everybody. However, that is not the case today. In this century, everyone has one or, two in whichever brand there is in the market. We see cellphones as a necessity, most importantly as a source of communication which ultimately makes it vital for everyone to have. However, as cell phones evolved over the years whether in design or functions, our attitudes towards it also changes. Nowadays, with the appearance of smartphones which are equipped with internet, makes it easier for us to surf the net and also log in to our social media accounts. But with good things comes the bad.

Despite connecting people even from different continents (thanks to the internet and social media) cell phone is becoming a problem when people do not know when to put it down. If you are in the office or at home, then it is alright to text or call someone but, if you are behind the wheels, it can cause major consequences namely, the life of other people. As reported by the US department of Transportation, research done shows that 385 died in crashes are caused by at least one of the drivers was using a cell phone (12% of fatalities in distraction-affected crashes) at the time of the crash. The use of a cell phone reported includes the act of talking or listening to a cell phone, dialing and texting a cell phone, or other cell-phone-related activities such as updating social networks. A recent study by National Safety Council found that 26 per cent of all car accidents were caused by driver using cell phone (Gorman, 2014). Furthermore, the report stated that the vast majority of those crashes, 1.4 million annually are caused by cell phone conversations and 200,000 are blamed on texting (Halsey III, 2014). Apart from that, in Washington itself 28 percent of accident involves talking, texting on cellphones while driving based on the study released by National Safety Council (Halsey, 2010). Despite the big numbers, laws prohibiting cell phone use behind the wheel are not providing much help in preventing these accidents.

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Accidents involving the use of cell phone while driving are nothing new today. Here are two cases to look at.

Exhibit A:

A mother was killed by a man who ran a red light because he was busy talking to his phone (Halsey III, 2010).

Exhibit B:

Jake Owen, a five years old boy from Maryland was busy playing his video games at the back seat when an SUV rammed into the back of his father’s car and killed him. It was reported that the driver, Devin McKeiver was using a cell phone when the impact occurred and did not hit the brake (Johnson, 2014).

Instead of going to jail for manslaughter, the man who caused Jake Owen’s death was only fined $1,000 because his lawyer argued he was doing something that everyone does: using a cell phone. Now, Jake’s family and others are asking the Maryland lawmakers to increase the penalties for drivers who caused accidents due to using their cell phone while driving. The bill was named “Jake’s Law” would penalized distracted drivers who is found guilty of causing fatal crash with up to three years in jail, $5,000 fine and 12 points on their driving license, enough to get their license suspended (Johnson, 2014). The bill also requires the drivers who involves in serious crash to submit basic information of their cell phone so that the police would know what they are doing during the impact. Jake’s mother believe that something has to be done to change people’s perception on this issue as she was quoted saying “anything that takes your eyes off the road, even for two seconds, is too long. It can take a life.” (Johnson, 2014).



However, not everyone was on board with that idea because sharing cell phone data is considered as an invasion of privacy, said the privacy advocates. There are other preventive measures that were taken to combat this issue for example, establishing a non-profit group like what U.S. Department of Transportation did. The Department sponsored a group named FocusDriven to attend to this problem. There are also states that are completely banning cell phone usage while driving for example, Guam, Puerto Rico and Washington, U.S.

Despite these preventive actions, prohibiting cell phone usage while driving is not easy. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U.S. about 660,000 drivers are using their cell phone during daylight hours (Johnson, 2014). Using cell phone while behind the wheels is the same as drunk driving. When there is alcohol, there will be drunk drivers, so, when there are cell phones there will be people who will use it while driving. People are just addicted to their phones. That is the reality in today’s societies. They either think they would not get caught or did not think a $50 fine is enough to stop them. Therefore, we really need to change how society thinks of this issue. Anything that takes your eyes off the road, even if it for two seconds is too long. It can take a life. A $1,000 fine does not equate to the life of a boy who had the world ahead of him. Hence, something needs to be done to stop this either enforcing a more severe punishment or create awareness. People should not die because somebody was too busy staring at their phone rather than on the road.

According to the World Health Organization (2011) studies from a number of countries suggest that the proportion of drivers using mobile phones while driving has increased over the past 5–10 years, ranging from 1% to up to 11%. The habit of using mobile phones can cause drivers to take their eyes off the road and also their hands off the steering wheel which will greatly distracts them from focusing on the road. This type of distraction is known as cognitive distraction which appears to have the biggest impact on driving behaviour. According to the World Health Organization (2011) using a mobile phone for text messaging while driving seems to have a particularly detrimental impact on driving behaviour.

This trend is particularly prevalent among young people, where they are constantly addicted to updating their social networks. Young drivers are particularly at risk as there is a greater prevalence of driving while using a mobile phone in this age group. A survey on 2010 conducted by AAMI found that 61% of Australian drivers aged between 18 to 24 years reported that they had sent or received a text while driving (compared with 32% of drivers aged over 25 years).  In addition, evidence demonstrates that undertaking secondary tasks while driving, such as using a mobile phone, causes greater problems for inexperienced drivers (who already have a higher crash risk (Grove, 2014).

The effects on driving behaviour of sending or receiving text messages are potentially very important. According to the World Health Organization (2011) while there is still a lack of research in this area, existing studies suggest that text messaging leads to increased cognitive demands in order to write text messages, physical distraction resulting from holding the phone, and visual distraction that results from creating or reading messages and these in turn has given impact on critical driving tasks.

It is easy to list down the advantages of mobile devices if it is used the right way at the right time. Despite the advantage of text messaging as a low-cost form of communication, the increasing use of text messaging services among drivers is likely to make this an important road safety concern. On the road, mobile device do comes in handy in times of emergency: flat tyres, stranded by the road side, car broke down, lost direction but all those can be done other times except for while having your hands on the steering. Even if the calls or texts are urgent, drivers should take responsibility with the life of others by pulling over to the road side until he or she finish using their mobile devices.

References

Gorman, R. (2014, March 27). One in four accidents caused by cell phone use while driving… but only five per cent blamed on texting. The Daily Mail. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2591148/One-four-car-accidents-caused-cell-phone-use-driving-five-cent-blamed-texting.html

Grove, K. (2014). CAARS-Q, state of the road. Mobile phone use and distraction while driving fact sheet, 2.

Halsey III, A. (2010, January 13). 28 percent of accidents involve talking, texting on cellphones. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/12/AR2010011202218.html

Johnson, J. (2014, March 9). ‘Jake’s Law’ addresses penalties for distracted driving. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/md-politics/jakes-law-addresses-penalties-for-distracted-driving/2014/03/09/c64aaa22-a3da-11e3-a5fa-55f0c77bf39c_story.html

Johnson, J. (2014, March 9). “Jake’s Law” addresses penalties for distracted driving. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/

Katz, J., & Aakhus, M. (2004). Introduction: framing the issues. In K. James & A. Mark (Eds.), Perpetual Contact Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance (pp. 1-14). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Mobile phone use: a growing problem of driver distraction. Geneva, Switzerland,World HealthOrganization,2011. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/en/index.html.

Transportation, U. D. (April 2013). Traffic Safety Facts . New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC.

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Mobile intimacy

In today’s world, distance is no longer a limit to communicate and reach out to the rest of the world.

Globalization is spreading to even the most remote parts of the world due to the use of cell phones. The cell phone is a portable, mobile, inexpensive device that is changing the way people in Africa live, socialize and do business.

(Couillard, 2010).

With that being said, technologies have simplified interactions and have indirectly changes the quality placed in interaction all due to mobile intimacy. In defense of digital communication, it not an entirely new concept to begin with as it is only altered to comply with the existing form of communication patterns by introducing new ways or means of communication to maintain network (Arminen & Weilenmann, 2009). Couillard (2010) added that mobile media technology is an extension of the previous means practices of intimacy in such that Hjorth (2005 as cited in Couillard,2010) the nineteenth century letter writing tradition is now replaced with SMS (Short Message Service) and vacation postcards replaced with its digital analogy version through Facebook.

In the past, if you just receive news updates from your relatives staying abroad, it would have been much more exciting than today as communicating with someone abroad is just one click away instead of going through all the trouble with air mail and having to wait for quite some time for the replies. Arminen & Weilenmann (2009) coined this as ‘time-space compression’ which explains the potential of mobile devices that makes intimate connection possible most of the time. Apart from time saving, interaction is now cramped into a single seamless web (Licoppe, 2004 as cited in Arminen & Weilenmann, 2009).

With the new age of communication made easier, simplified and more mobile than ever, some might have taken it for granted. Is the level of intimacy with the people we connect with virtually is equal of the one in real world or are we more intimate with the mobile device itself? People keep checking their phones to connect to more people at the same time but are the context of intimacy here solid or is there any lines in between?

At one time we could connect and communicate with a lot of people from different places. Say during family gathering, apart from catching up with the people who are physically there, with mobile phone, one could also contact other people virtually which in a way is both good and bad; good as in that person could reach out to more people at the same time whereas it is bad in a way that his or her attention is now divided between reality and virtual communication. The discussion on intimacy here could be question.

Although it is all good, mobile media has somehow caused conflicts with the boundaries between individual relationships with work, private space and social life or what Couillard (2010) coined as overlapping boundaries between online and offline worlds.

The mobile phone ‘characterizes modern times and life in the fast lane’ and has become iconic of ‘work-life balance’—or lack thereof—in contemporary lifemanipulating ‘the boundary between work and life was one of the principal ways that many people controlled their time’

(Wajcman et al 2009, p. 9-10 as cited in Couillard, 2010).

Apart from the said boundaries between public, private, work and life, Gregg (2011) believe that it also affects economic and emotional spaces (As cited in Couillard, 2010). With the ability to work outside office, workers are now having extra load as they may be expected to be presence the whole time which may affect their social life and bonding time with their families and friends or even their own personal time. It is just a call away from having them to come for meetings or in some cases they have to attend skype (video call) meeting, and with internet on the go they have no excuse to not check their mail box to attend to urgent emails.

“The telephone has dramatically changed how people live their lives and see their world.”

(Kartz and Aakhus, 2002)

Here we could see how mobile communication has evidently change our lifestyle and indirectly become part of the necessity.Communication is no longer limited to certain times, but as with other new media it can take place on a 24/7 basis. It is notion of timeless time where time no longer divided into personal, work-related, leisure and so on; we get in touch whenever we want especially through mobile media. As explained by Arminen & Weilenmann (2009) the digital communication has been incorporated with daily routines and errands and in fact according to McNeill & McNeill (2003 as cited in Arminen & Weilenmann, 2009) has altered the ways of life and the organizing principles of society.

References

Arminen, I., & Weilenmann, A. (2009). Mobile presence and intimacy – reshaping social actions in mobile contextual configuration. Journal of Pragmatics, Special Issue on Communicating Place, Space & Mobility.

Couillard, C. (2010). Globalization: a study of cell phone use in africa. University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Hjorth, L., & Lim, S.S. (2012). Mobile intimacy in an age of affective mobile media. Feminist Media Studies, 12(4), 477-484.

Katz, J., & Aakhus, M. (2004). Introduction: framing the issues. In K. James & A. Mark (Eds.). Perpetual Contact Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance (pp. 1-14). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

4

Modern Family Review: You just got Phubbed!

modern family “Connection Lost” is not only a hilarious episode of Modern Family, but it is also very well done. The fact that the whole thing is done through laptops, phones, etc. is fascinating, and the point is one we should all pay attention to. The technological asides like that are pretty fun throughout the episode, and, dare I say, even innovative? Claire buying Mitch a last-minute birthday present from RalphLauren.com, Mitchell texting Claire while she was onscreen with Cam, Lily demanding more iPad time: These are all things that happen every day now that we are all addicted to screentime. This was as modern as you can get considering the majority of communication now takes place at our fingertips while we stare at a phone, tablet or computer screen.

The 22 minute video really reflect on the title of the story, Modern Family. Being somewhere else doesn’t mean we couldn’t get in touch with our family instead in nowadays world everything is almost possible by invention of internet. Claire, who worried about Haley, her eldest daughter couldn’t stay still about not getting a reply from Haley through massage that she send. So, she keep trying to found out where is Haley by communicating with her other family members. By doing this, she become a multi tasking person which we can see on her desktop full of new media such as facebook, chatting boxes and skype.

We say a lot about ourselves in the way we navigate our digital lives. At least, that was certainly the case when the viewers spent an entire episode of Modern Family watching as Claire Dunphy navigated several crises using just her laptop. Her online conversations with her family and friends were suddenly there for us to scrutinize. Framing an entire episode through the lens of one character’s computer screen was almost uncomfortably personal. We learned a lot about Claire and about how her mind works, in ways that the usual plots couldn’t possibly convey.

What Claire perform through the computer is what we call computer mediated communication (CMC) by using new media.  CMC is use by many in teaching the class in order to enchance the effectiveness of the study (LeeSing & Miles, 1999: Warschauer, 1997). In this case, Claire performing CMC to interact with her family members. In the scene, we could see how effective the communication between the family members although they are far from each other. This allowed them to discuss the problem within the 22 minutes.  We also could see Claire do the last minute shopping online for her brother, Mitchell birthday’s present . However, all of this can only be happen if all of them have a smartphone or computer.

Have you heard of Phubbed

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Have you been phubbed or have you phubbed anyone?

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phubbeddd

Claire: When I’m not there, I need you to be present and keep track of everyone.

Phil: Love you too

This was among the conversation between Claire and Phil when she called him to ask about the updates on their daughters. From this, he clearly was not paying attention to Claire. Another part was when Claire was having video call with her second daughter and asking her to call Phil and Phil casually replied his daughter by saying “tell mom I’m not here”. When he was obviously playing video game in the background. Although long distance communication could be overcome by having technology such as video calls, it is unfortunately not as interactive as it is supposed to.In the episode of “connection lost” for example, Phil was distracted by his game that he was not paying attention to his wife who was asking about their daughter. He seems clueless on why Claire was uptight and anxious on that matter. Although he was in the house with his children but he was not even aware of the location of his children resulting them panicking about Haley getting married in Vegas when all they know Haley have been sleeping the whole day in her room. When they finally got hold on Haley, they were all surprised to find Haley answering her phone and standing behind them in the same room. The distraction from gadgets could somehow cause us to be less attentive to our surroundings.

This is a perfect example of phubbed!

Technology in the Modern Family series as pointed out by Lhnat (2015) has both its merit(s) and demerit(s), without relying on the advantage of technology, they would have just checked Haley’s room and be relieved to find her sleeping soundly. However, they used it to track Haley’s phone to Vegas which has caused everyone to be panicked. Nevertheless, the technology advancement did helped their family to reconnect with everyone at the same time like their very own virtual family gathering which serves as a good cause on this case.

References

LeeSing, C., & Miles, C. (1999). The relative effectiveness of audio, video, and static visual computer-mediated presentations. Canadian Journal of Education, 24(2), pp. 212-221.

Lhnat, G. (2015, February 25). Modern family: “connection lost”: a gimmicky but successful storytelling experiment. Retrieved from http://www.avclub.com/tvclub/modern-family-connection-lost-215702

Stop phubbing. Retrieved from http://stopphubbing.com/

Warschauer, M. (1997). Computer-mediated collaborative learning: theory and practice. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), pp. 470-481.

(2013, August 5) Phubbing: the war against anti-social phone use. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/shortcuts/2013/aug/05/phubbing-anti-social-phone-campaign

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2

Blogosphere coverage

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Nowadays, the blogosphere has taken reporting a step further, mining down to the experiences and perceptions of individual citizens. So, people do not only have to depend on the official news to get updates on the latest issues. The current HOT issue is the plane crash incidents which started getting vast media attention. Since the official news cannot announce any latest news without official verification, people depend on the unofficial sources as the news updates are faster there. Blogs has been one of the interesting ways of updating the plane crash issues. There is certain way the media has been doing coverage through blogosphere.

1. Biased coverage

Where the information presented can be seen in a biased manner. This means that the coverage is either supporting a particular view or opposing a particular view. So it is only one sided where the writer writes the new according to what the impression is. For example, it’s a terror act or suicide mission by pilot based on previous such accidents” (Pradhan, 2014). 

2. Un-biased coverage

This is where unbiased presentations of facts and also figures. Instead of taking any particular stand on the issue. The news covers both side of the issue to make sure there is fairness and this can be seen in the plane crash news, “Alternative media websites and myself have suggested that the plane wreckage presented to us as MH-17, actually belongs to the ‘lost’ flight MH-370”. This is then continued with Unfortunately for the secret agencies involved in this false flag, the internet buzz created around this information made them panic and the official REUTERS images showing that piece of the wreckage have been Photoshopped” (Light,2014).

3. Interactive coverage

This would be the most famous way of covering a news in blogs as the author includes the  presentation of information and also including audience views in it thus, makes the coverage interactive such as “Some readers suggested that the invalid passports could be required as they could contain unexpired visas” (Light,2014).

In Malaysia, Ethics in Journalism Malaysia is concerned with truth and respect the right of people to receive the accurate information. In this case, although bloggers are not obligated towards journalism ethics, bloggers should be accountable in their writings by avoiding any offensive remarks, defamatory and patterned with extreme bias and moral. Information written must be authentic in fact and not subversive or slanderous. On top of that, incorrect information should be corrected immediately (Malaysian Press Institute Code of Ethics under Proposed Malaysia Media Council, Revised version by Inisiatif Wartawan). News readers and audiences expect unbiased, well-balanced, and objective material. Therefore, it is important to have any statements supported by facts from reputable sources. Being said so; a journalist must avoid any conflicts of interest to serve the interest of readers, viewers and listeners thus to honor the journalistic profession at all times. In fact, in our opinion a blogger who are passionate in sharing information should have taken this aspect seriously.

References

Lasica, J. (2003). Nieman Reports. Blogs and Journalism Need Each Other, 70.

Light, A. (2014, July 25). Busted! MH-17 was in fact the ‘lost’ flight MH-370- updates [Blog post]. Retrieved from Humans Are Free. http://humansarefree.com/2014/07/busted-mh-17-was-in-fact-lost-flight-mh.html

Media Research Center. (2009). Media bias 101. The Media Research Center

Pradhan, G. (2014, March 27).Malaysia airlines mh370 crash planned & why?.Retrieved from http://drgauravpradhan.blogspot.com/2014/03/malaysia-airlines-mh370-crash-planned.html

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4

Dissemination of news: Blogosphere vs. Website

How do you get updated on the latest news?

Do you read the newspaper or the internet?

If you read online news update, which sources do you trust the most of choose to trust? Does the reports from these sources influences the way you think, analyze or even affect your judgment?

This time around we will study the news report not from the official media broadcast or any sorts of news channel but news transmitted through blogosphere. Official news website are basically abide to certain obligation that requires them to only report news according to certain standard. Blogosphere present more freedom in reporting and therefore we could access to their opinions on the issue which is highly unlikely to be found in official website.

We have decided to compare and contrast the narratives of few different blogs to understand the pattern of reports presented in blogsphere on plane crash. The year 2014 has not been a good year for Malaysia particularly in their history of air travels. Throughout 2014 alone, Malaysia lost three of their airplanes from two main aircraft company; Malaysia Airlines and Air Asia in a tragic and deathly crash. However we will only be comparing news on MH370 and MH17.

After the planes were reported missing from the radar, almost instantly, news portals were bombarded with the updates on the incidents. Everyone wants to know what exactly happened to those planes. Though not many answers were given, plenty of news regarding the status of both planes was taking over not only the social media but also the primetime news. Social media were exploded with pictures of the MH17 crime scenes while speculations regarding the missing MH370 spread like rapid fire online. Although some of the news catered to the people’s curiosity around the world, it begs the question as to what to believe? With so many news appearing on various news portals, how does one determine those stories to be newsworthy?

What news websites reports:

According to the recap reports by official news website (The Associated Press, 2014), the first one involves the mysterious disappearance of MH370 on March 8 with 239 passengers aboard from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing. The mystery of it remains till today as months of over haul search for it has failed despite the advanced searching equipments used. The suspected cause analysis of it was due to running out of fuel that resulted in crash. Prior to that, officials deny the involvement of terrorism but conspiracy theories. Overall, these possibilities and analysis could only be confirmed when the wreckage is found and examined. On the other hand, the same source of report on the second case of plane crash, MH17 disseminated the news that the flight traveling from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur had been brought down by the rebel-held eastern Ukraine. The July 17 incident involves 298 passengers and cabin crew. The main cause of it was believed by Dutch air crash investigators to have been struck by multiple “high-energy objects” such as missile as speculated by the aviation experts. The ground-to-air missile according to a high-ranking rebel officer was released as they have mistaken the commercial plane for a Ukrainian military plane. Conversely, MH17 was claimed by Russian media to have been shot by Ukrainian jet. Nevertheless, International criminal investigation coordinated by Dutch prosecutors to attend to this incident which the suspects or the charges of crime is yet to be revealed. The international teams were reported to be facing difficulties in retrieving hunks of the wreckage, remains and salvage evidence as there are clashes between Ukrainian government and Russian-backed separatist rebels.

What blogs report:

On the other hand, based on dissemination of the same issues in blogosphere present some similarities and dissimilarities The first blog to be reviewed here is by Pradhan (2014) titled “Malaysia Airlines MH370 crash PLANNED & WHY?”. Pradhan (2014) started his post by stating his position as what he termed as “a normal global news follower” to which is then followed by his interest, assumptions on the news of MH370. Apart from that, in order to avoid being accused of spreading rumours, he has provided several links to support his arguments, analysis and conclusion to his “research”. His research in way seems to be of his interest to uncover the truth and trying to make sense of the whole mysterious incident to which he believes was all planned out by some particular group.

The second blog is by Shilling (2014) with the title “The evidence is now overwhelming that the Kiev military shot down Malaysian airlines flight MH17 in Ukraine”. Shilling (2014) presented his evidences on the incident by compiling regular updates on the latest news up on the same blog post to which like Pradhan (2014) has also included links of news sources for readers to read or refer to. Although he updates it regularly, he did not just extract the news from certain particular sources but he actually includes different sources on each updates to compare the news and evidences present. This is to avoid any bias elements as the background of that website or news sources such as their sociopolitical beliefs will influence the way they present their report.

Similarities & differences in report style

Both blogs seems to have the same idea and direction whereby both seek to unveil the truth with their assumption and evidences that they have presented. Apart from that, both of them appear to have done their own ‘research’ based on multiple readings from different sources in an attempt to avoid any form of biasness. However, the first blog provide the readers with the base and background of his subjects before presenting his own idea. There is coherence in his idea and assumption. On the other hand, the second blog which mainly extract and report news with minimal attempt to impose any influence on the readers.

Among other similarities found between blogs are the way they create their catchy title to grab the interests of people to read their full write ups. From the title itself, we could actually foresee the author’s style of writings and his direction. For instance, “[MENGEJUTKAN] Benarkah MH17 Itu Sebenarnya MH370 Yang Hilang?” (Boc, 2014), “RAHSIA KONSPIRASI MH17 DAN MH370 TERBONGKAR!! … TERKINI: Amerika menggelupor dan Australia terpaku !!!” (Kzso, 2014) and “Busted! MH-17 Was in Fact the ‘Lost’ Flight MH-370” (Light, 2014) are all blogs with the same interest which is to expose or unveil what they have perceived as truth or to present their assumption that the official news channel would not be covering particularly those involving political view.

Their content would usually present certain questions or points which challenges or requires the readers to ponder upon. Apart from that, since news are first conveyed through the official news channel, blogs seek to question the information given by the mainstream medias thus explains why most of the news in blogs are opinion-based with accumulation of information from different sources as their supporting details and evidences.

What makes up news?

According to Evangelical Press Association (2015) there are seven aspects that makes a story worthy of the name “news” and those are timeliness, proximity, impact or consequence, novelty or rarity, conflict, human interest and prominence. Timeliness concerns with the timeline of the news. Like the “new” in news, the newer the news, the better. Nobody is interested in yesterday’s news. It is better to serve the news when it is still “fresh” and attracting the people’s attention. However, it can dangerous when the news is reported before it is ready which can lead to lack of facts and merely contain speculations. Hence, double-checking is a must when writing any online news. On the other hand, people are more interested in events that hit close to home. MH17 is not the first plane to crash nor does MH370 the first plane that went missing. So why do Malaysian became vastly interested in MH370 and MH17 incidents compared to others of the same cases? Simple. A plane crash involving a Malaysian plane is much more appealing to Malaysian than a plane crash involving say, Turkish Airways. Thus, it is natural for Malaysian to take the news “personally” rather than view it like any other news. This is what proximity implies. The next aspect according to the Evangelical Press Association (2015) is impact or consequence.

“Does it matter?”

That is the question every journalist should ask before writing any news. Will the story that they wrote make any impact on their readers? Of course, it is vital to give out information but the relevancy is also an important matter. Journalist cannot simply write a news without thinking about the consequences. In the case of a plane crash, the family members of the victims are the ones that are most affected by the incident. See the examples below:

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The first picture was a news taken from an online news portal, Astro Awani while the second picture was a post on a personal blog. See the difference in the news reporting? The former are more precise and objective in reporting the news with facts to support the claims while the latter is more opinionated and rather biased. I am sure the family members are more concern about the latest news regarding the plane crash instead of a conspiration theory by someone they hardly know. Besides, a wrong kind of information can hurt the feeling of the victim’s family members who are already in mourning. Therefore, it is better to think about the impact of the story before publishing any news. Next is novelty or rarity. Is it an unusual story? Plane crash does not always happen. But when it happened, expect it to be on the front news of every newspaper in the world. Everyone will want to know the details as soon as possible and obviously the news stations would want to be the first to cover the news. Meanwhile, the fifth aspect, conflict tells about how a story needing conflict to attract readers because frankly, everybody loves a little conflict (The Evangelical Press, 2015). However, this can also put a negative light to a news due to misinformation for the sake of attracting readers. “A depressed pilot deliberately crash plane” is certainly an eye-grabbing title but whether it is based on facts or merely speculations only the writer can decide. Next is human interest. According to The Evangelical Press (2015) this one is a bit hard to define but in general people are interested in other people. For example, a fire burning an empty building is not as interesting as a fire burning someone’s home. While the last aspect, prominence is also part of human interest. People are more interested in famous people than ordinary people. For example, if Randy Clark, a farmer from Texas had an affair, it would not be on the news. However, if the President of United States of America had an affair, it is front-page news. The same goes to plane crash. A plane crash is a serious matter but the level of interest differs. That is why a plane crash that killed hundreds of people from different countries is far more interesting than a small, private plane that crash without killing anybody.

Leigh  (2009) adds that a good story must be simple but accurate. Avoid thinking by using “jargon, formal language, complicated sentences and going to a great details” can make a story sounds important. It only makes it boring. It is wise to report the story with facts in a language that can be understood by everybody or use an analog if it helps to explain the concept better. These aspects of newsworthiness, if being considered can make a good and quality story. Hence, not only will it give information regarding certain events to the audience, it can also boost the writer’s credibility.

References

Evangelical Press Association. (2015). Journalism 101: What makes a story newsworthy?. Evangelical Press. Retrieved from http://www.evangelicalpress.com/jou101/

Leigh, V. (2009). How to write a news story. Retrieved from https://www.embl.de/aboutus/communication_outreach/writing_news_story.pdf

Pradhan, G. (2014, March 27).Malaysia airlines mh370 crash planned & why?.Retrieved from http://drgauravpradhan.blogspot.com/2014/03/malaysia-airlines-mh370-crash-planned.html

Shilling, I. (2014, July 18). The evidence is now overwhelming that the kiev military shot down malaysian airlines flight mh17 in ukraine. Retrieved from http://ian56.blogspot.com/2014/07/malaysia-airline-flight-mh71-crash-in.html

Light, A. (2014, July 25). Busted! MH-17 was in fact the ‘lost’ flight MH-370- updates [Blog post]. Retrieved from Humans Are Free. http://humansarefree.com/2014/07/busted-mh-17-was-in-fact-lost-flight-mh.html

Boc, G. (2014, July 28). Benarkah mh17 itu sebenarnya mh370 yang hilang?.  Retrieved from http://greenboc.blogspot.com

Kzso (2014, December 12). Rahsia konspirasi mh17 dan mh370 terbongkar!! … Terkini: amerika menggelupor dan australia terpaku!. Retrieved from http://kzso.blogspot.com

The Associated Press. (2014, December 28). Missing airasia flight is third malaysia air disaster in 2014: a look at malaysia’s air disasters this year. Haaretz. Retrieved from http://www.haaretz.com/news/world/1.634098

Bernama. (2015, January 15). Belanda akan teruskan siasatan terperinci penembakan MH17. Astro Awani. Retrieved from http://www.astroawani.com/berita-mh17/belanda-akan-teruskan-siasatan-terperinci-penembakan-mh17-52583#

Mustafa, M. (2015, January 29).  Hurt and angry, MH370 families reject ‘death’ announcement. The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved from http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/malaysia/article/hurt-and-angry-mh370-families-reject-death-announcement

Smith, A. (2015, January 29). Malaysian Airline 370 declared an ‘accident’, search for survivors ends. NBC. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/missing-jet/malaysia-airlines-mh370-declared-accident-search-survivors-ends-n295916

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7

On the go

internet usage stats Internet holds a large number of human population which is rapidly growing every second. Do you know that up till this second that this post is written, there are currently:

3,091005,381 internet users around the world

919,802,358 total number of websites

46,380,258,864 emails sent today

900,985,701 Google searches today

Click here to watch the population grows

With these numbers of population– we can even build up an empire! The introduction of internet as the advanced ICTs has turned the world into a global village and posses economic growth prospect (Acilar, 2011). No wonder people uses internet as their business platform and advertisement nowadays. According to Acilar (2011), the information and communication technologies (ICTs) have gone through rapid development over the past few decades and have always been part of the aspect that changes the lifestyle and socialization of the world’s populations.

mac-internet-sharing

While the telecommunications infrastructure has grown and ICT has become less expensive and more accessible, today more than ever, the invisible line that separates rich from poor, men from women and the educated from the Aspects of Digital Divide in a Developing Country illiterate; also separates the connected from the disconnected (Zaidi as cited in Acilar, 2011).

Although telecommunication through the new media is tailored to be less expensive and more convenient to most, there in unfortunately significant differences and ability to access and use the ICTs which is translated differently in different continents. Digital divide is usually categorized as gender divide, age divide and income divide (Acilar, 2011).

In an attempt to understand probability of ‘digital divide’,  a mini survey was conducted between a group of our classmates TheAgeofGeeks group and our group. We have chosen a group of our classmates (consisting of 5 male) and hand out questionnaires in order to understand their pattern of behavior and average usage/consumption of the new media. It is then compared with our own group (consisting of 5 female). Both the male and female groups consist of students around the age of 22 and 23 years old. Due to the coincidence of the division between gender among the groups, we will just mostly the term male and female group as a reference in our discussion.

When asked about the amount of gadgets owned and the relation with age, 100% of the 23 years old students own 3 devices while 90% of the 22 year old students have 3 gadgets and the remaining one has 4 devices.

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How early can one possibly own a Smartphone? We found out one of our respondents had his first Smartphone since primary school. While majority had it since form 1-3 and the rest during form 4-6.

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Which device(s) do students need and uses the most? 4 out of 5 male or 90% of the male respondents stated smartphone as the device used most often. Only 1 of the male respondents stated laptop as most used device because as a student, he needs it most of the time to do assignments. On the other hand, all female respondents agreed on having smartphones as their most used device. So what do they use it for? Overall, 9 out of 10 respondents uses their phone to watch movies, personal use such as email, to surf the internet and also to keep in touch and communicate with people. They also mentioned that they prefer to use their phone the most because it is more convenient as it is easy to carry around. Thus this leads to another psychological impact on the overly-attached phone users.

Have you heard of Nomophobia?

Some of you might have not heard of it but do not be surprised that most of us have actually seen it or some might have experienced it themselves. Nomophobia is actually an abbreviation of “nomobile-phone phobia” which explains the anxiety of living without mobile device or having no access of phone contact especially when it ran out of battery or credit or without network coverage (Elmore, 2014). Sounds familiar? According to Huffpost, this is indeed caused rapid fear in today’s world and this problem is rising among the high school and college students to which it is reported that college students now shower with their mobile device! (Elmore, 2014).

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According to Yzer & Southwell (2008), people have always regarded the internet as the synonym of new media. Hence by this aspect, Smartphone with the availability of internet on the go, the “new” in new media refer to the opportunities of functional meetings for groups to exchange ideas. As shown by the graphs above, 100% of the female respondents subscribe to data plan whereas only 60% of the male have data plan.

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With these data, we could also say that the female respondents surf the internet everyday as they have easy access on internet especially which therefore explains 100% of the female respondents uses internet everyday while only 80% of the male respondents is on the internet everyday. The remaining 20% is male respondents only uses the internet when needed. Perhaps due to their dependency on limited access to available wifi.

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On the other hand, discussion on mobile attachment is usually linked with the younger age particularly students. Huffpost reports that high number of college students actually sleep with or next to their phones. Based on the survey we conducted, majority of our respondents which amounts to 44.4%, stated that they can last for a couple of days without checking their social media accounts such as Twitter and Facebook. Three out of four respondents who chose this answer belongs to our group while the two members of other group mostly stated that they are not affected. Meanwhile, 22.2% of our respondents comprised of both groups stated that they can last for a day without their social media accounts while only 11.1% which equates to a member who belongs to our group stated that she can only last for a few hours without scrolling her newsfeed on her social media accounts. From this statistics, we can say that social media does not play a major part in our respondent’s lives. This is because only a small number of our respondents regularly check their social media accounts despite being in the era where smartphones ruled and Wi-Fi  connections are available everywhere.

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Hupfer and Detlor (2006) as well as Garbarino and Strahilevitz (2004) came to agreement that Internet is comprehend by female users as a tool to maintain social values as compared to man (as cited in Thanuskodi, 2013). 44.4% of male respondents stated that they update their status on their social media accounts whenever there is something interesting to share while 33.3% saying it depend on their mood to update. There is also 22.2% of male respondents who said that they never updated their status. This could be they do not own any social media account or maybe they do not actively using it hence the lack of updates. On the other hand, three female respondents (members from our group) chose to update when there is something interesting to share compared to only one male respondent who chose the same answer. Meanwhile, two out of three female respondents chose to update their social media accounts according to their mood while both members who never update their social media accounts are male respondents. We can conclude that gender-wise, it can be said that males do not appear to care about updating their status regularly compared to females. This is most probably because they do not feel the need to share about themselves on the internet or even spend time thinking about their next update.

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Based on our data all of our respondents use the internet for research and academic purposes. This is not unusual considering our survey was conducted among students. Therefore, it is inevitable for us, students to use the internet for information to do our assignments. Meanwhile, about 88.9% of our respondents stated they use the internet for entertainment and social media application. Five members from our groups chose to use the internet for the social media and the other three are from the other group while both group have the same amount of members which is four members when it comes to using the internet for entertainment. The high percentage for this is probably because of this survey is conducted among youth in the early 20s so it is common for them to use the internet for those particular reasons. Next is the usage for personal communication such as e-mail and instant messaging system where according to our survey about 77.8% of our respondents which equates to seven members chose to use the internet for this purpose. Among the seven members, four is from our group while the other three is from the other group. There is only a slight difference among these two groups which prompt us to conclude that both of the groups use the internet for personal communication quite regularly. The least usage for the internet based on our survey is for reading. Our survey recorded about 66.7% of our respondents who use the internet for reading which equates to a total of six members, three from each group. Now, this is not a small number considering the number of respondents we had, but the reason some of our respondents might not use the internet for reading is probably because they prefer to go to the library to get their reading materials hence the least percentage of usage.

Conclusion

Overall, the relation of ‘digital divide’ according to the mini survey, there is minimal differences present between the two groups. Perhaps the settings of our survey has no extreme differences as both groups are more less the same age, the same source of income (loans/scholarship/parents) and are all students. The comparison done between female and male internet consumption behavior in this mini survey does not necessarily cover the overall gender aspect. This survey is in fact not in any way enough to draw any drastic conclusion as it is only done among 10 students. It is only ample to serve as an example for the application of the probability of ‘digital divide’.

References

Acilar, A. (2011). Exploring the aspects of digital divide in a developing country. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology Volume 8.

Elmore, T. (2014, August 26). Curing student of nomophobia. Huffpost. Retrieved from https//:m.huffpost.com/us/entry/5710427

Internet world stats: usage and population statistics. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm

Thanuskodi. S. (2013). Gender differences in internet usage among college students: a comparative study. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Yzer, M. C., & Southwell, B. G. (2008). New communication technologies, old questions. American Behavioral Scientist.

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**You may also click on our respondent’s link on top as they have also conducted the survey and their findings are worth the read. 

click here to proceed to their blog